The client's scores on the addiction proneness indicators, along with the personality characteristics reflected in the profile, suggests that he resembles some individuals who develop addictive disorders. A substance-abuse evaluation should explore this possibility through a careful review of his personality traits and typical behaviors.
In his responses to the MMPI-2, he has acknowledged some problems with excessive use or abuse of addictive substances. John F. Clarkin, in Comprehensive Clinical Psychology , Linehan's a, b cognitive-behavioral treatment of the parasuicidal individual is an example of the application of a specific school of psychotherapy adapted to a specific patient population defined both by a personality disorder diagnosis BPD and repetitive self-destructive behavior.
The rationale and data upon which the patient pathology is understood as related to the treatment is well described and thorough. The assumption behind DBT is that of dialectics. The world view of dialectics involves notions of inter-relatedness and wholeness, compatible with feminist views of psychopathology, rather than an emphasis on separation, individuation, and independence. A related principle is that of polarity, that is, all propositions contain within them their own oppositions. As related to the borderline pathology, it is assumed that within the borderline dysfunction there is also function and accuracy.
Thus, in DBT, it is assumed that each individual, including the borderline clients, are capable of wisdom as related to their own life and capable of change. At the level of the relationship between borderline client and DBT therapist, dialectics refers to change by persuasion, a process involving truth not as an absolute but as an evolving, developing phenomenon.
Borderline pathology is conceptualized as a dialectical failure on the part of the client. The thinking of the BPD patient has a tendency to become paralyzed in either the thesis or antithesis, without movement toward a synthesis.
Deploying Style Effectively
There is a related dialectical theory of the development of borderline pathology. BPD is seen primarily as a dysfunction of the emotion regulation system, with contributions to this state of malfunction from both biological irregularities and interaction over time with a dysfunctional environment. In this point of view, the BPD client is prey to emotional vulnerability, that is, high sensitivity to emotional stimuli, emotional intensity, and a slow return to emotional baseline functioning. In such an environment, the developing individual does not learn to label private experiences, nor does the individual learn emotion regulation.
These assumptions and related data on the developmental histories and cross-sectional behaviors of those with BPD provide the rationale and shape of the treatment. The major tasks of the treatment are, therefore, to teach the client skills so that they can modulate emotional experiences and related mood-dependent behaviors, and to learn to trust and validate their own emotions, thoughts and activities.
The relevant skills are described as four in type: skills that increase interpersonal effectiveness in conflict situations, strategies to increase self-regulation of unwanted affects, skills for tolerating emotional distress, and skills adapted from Zen meditation to enhance the ability to experience emotions and avoid emotional inhibition. The manual provides extensive material on basic treatment strategies e.
Problem solving consists of analysis of behavior problems, generating alternate behavioral solutions, orientation to a solution behavior, and trial of the solution behavior. The core of the treatment is described as balancing problem-solving strategies with validation strategies. This manual is exceptional, and provides a new and very high standard in the field for treatment manuals. There are a number of exemplary features.
First, the patient population is defined by DSM criteria in addition to specific problematic behaviors, that is, parasuicidal behaviors. Second, the treatment manual was generated in the context of clinical research. The treatment was developed in the context of operationalization and discovery, that is, how to operationalize a treatment for research that fits the pathology of the patients who are selected and described by specific criteria.
Learn more about Diagnosis of Personality Disorder
The treatment generated in this context has been used in diverse treatment settings to teach therapists of various levels of expertise and training to address BPD patients. This process of teaching the treatment to therapists of multiple levels of competence and training can foster the articulation of the treatment and enrich its adaptability to community settings.
This treatment has a duration of one year or more because it is addressed to a very difficult and seriously disturbed group of individuals, and provides the challenge of extending treatment manuals beyond brief treatments. A most important and practical addition to the book is an accompanying workbook with work sheets for therapist and patients. Jeremy Berman, Many offenders fulfil the diagnostic criteria for one or more of the neurotic stress-related or somatoform disorders.
Any causal connection, however, between the offence and a psychiatric diagnosis is more likely found with diagnoses of personality disorders. It is important to note that there is a close link between having a diagnosis of a personality disorder and suffering from neurotic symptoms whether or not these would amount to a separate diagnosis of neurotic disorder. It can be helpful to examine these neurotic conflicts and the symbolic meanings of particular offences for a given individual through offering psychodynamic psychotherapy.
Became Their Own Antithesis - TV Tropes
Prevalence studies of abnormal personality usually use the type model. Some personality disorders are more common in men e. More general associations of personality disorder include an increased risk of social, employment and medical problems. Genetic factors play a substantial role in determining personality. Siblings usually have very different personalities despite receiving similar upbringings, and twin studies have confirmed a genetic effect. The role of childhood environment has been most studied in dissocial personality disorder. Risk factors include social deprivation and parental disharmony and violence, whereas protective factors include having at least one positive relationship with an adult.
Borderline personality disorder is often associated with childhood sexual abuse. There is some evidence that brain function is abnormal in some personality disorders. Personality changes including aggression and impulsivity are often seen following head injury. Increased slow wave activity on EEGs has been demonstrated in dissocial personality disorder, leading to the theory that the disorder is caused by the failure of the brain to mature normally, and there is also evidence of impaired serotonin function among people with impulsive or aggressive personality traits, but neither of these findings have been consistently replicated.
David is a year-old man who has always felt inferior to others. He feels tense much of the time. He avoids situations where he might be judged by others. He often makes rash decisions and can become violent if people try to stop him acting on these see Fig. Examples of how the problems in the case history can be described using the four models of abnormal personality.
Personality is considered to be disordered if it consistently causes distress or dysfunctional relationships. The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and its differentiation from other personality disorders is highly variable in clinical practice. As you'll see in the list that follows, many words with irregular plurals are loanwords that have kept their foreign plural forms or at least held on to those forms as alternatives to regular English plurals.
In the list below, you'll find singular noun forms in the left column and the corresponding plural forms in the right column.
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When a noun has more than one plural form, the irregular one appears first, though that doesn't necessarily mean that the irregular form is more widely accepted than the regular form. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks. How might they react?
A savvy writer will anticipate and address counterarguments. As is the case with any piece of writing, you should take your argumentative essay through multiple drafts.
100 Irregular Plural Nouns in English
When writing and revising your drafts, make sure you:. After you have written a developed draft, take off your writer's hat and put on your reader's hat. Evaluate your essay carefully and critically.
Exchange a draft of your essay with classmates to get their feedback. Carefully revise your draft based on your assessment of it and suggestions from your peers. For self-assessment and peer response to your draft, you may want to use a peer editing sheet. A peer editing sheet will guide you and your peers by asking specific questions about your text i.
Is it arguable? Does the writer include ample evidence? Is the structure suitable for the topic and the audience? Skip to main content. Suggestions for Developing Argumentative Essays.