Clin Chim Acta , Dig Dis Sei , Sircus W: Medical-surgical collaboration in the practice of gastroenterology. Comput Assist Tomgr , Am j Gastroenterol , Br Med , Spiro HM: Patient and physician in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Gastro-intest Radiol , Pharm Pharmacol , Clin Pathol , A possible new drug for inflammatory bowel disease.
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Br J Surg , SS Goligher JC: The long-term results of excisional surgery for primary and recurrent Crohn's disease of the large intestine. Greenstein AJ, Aut'ses AH: Differences in pathogenesis, incidence and outcome of perforation in inflammatory bowel disease. Surg Gynecol Obstet , A survey of 99 cases. I Clin Gastroenterol , Kestenberg A, Becker M: A new technique of loop ileostomy closure after endorectal ileoanal anastomosis.
Surgery , Scand Gastroenterol , Lennard-Jones E: The cancer risk in ulcerative colitis: surveillance or surgery. Nicholls RJ, Pezim ME: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal reservoir for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis: a comparison of three reservoir designs. Oakley JR. J Pediatr Surg , A complication of proctocolectomy in patients with chronic ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Am J Surg , Pescatori M: Myoelectric and motor activity of the terminal ileum after pelvic pouch for ulcerative colitis.
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Technical note. Digestion , Relationship to location of disease clinical pattern and surgical indication. Williams NS, Johnston D: The current status of mucosal proctectomy and ileo-anal anastomosis in the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and adenomatous polyposis. J Clin Pathol , Jacobs LR, Huber PW: Regional distribution and alterations of lectin binding to colorectal mucin in mucosal biopsies from controls and subjects with inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Invest , Kanemitsu T, Koike A, Yamamoto S: Study of the cell proliferation kinetics in ulcerative colitis, adenomatous polyps, and cancer.
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Characterization of human intestinal mucosa-derived mononuclear cells reactive with purified epithelial cell-associated components in vitro. Clin Invest , Eur J Clin Invest , C3b opsonization of zymosan by the alternative pathway. Takahashi F, Das KM: Isolation and characterization of a colonic autoantigen specifically recognized by colon tissue-bound immunoglobulin-G from idiopathic ulcerative colitis.
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Gitnick G: Is Crohn's disease a mycobacterial disease after all? Hendriksen C, Kreiner S, Binder V: Long term prognosis in ulcerative colitis - based on results from a regional patient group from the county of Copenhagen. Kirsner B: Inflammatory bowel disease at the University of Chicago - the first 50 years: some personal reflections. Postgrad Med J.
Lutz W: Crohn's disease: an allergic reaction to resorption of macroparticles. Am Gastroenterol. Saghar DB: Crohn's disease in Cleveland: a matter of life and death. Digestion 1 , Hepato-gastroenterology , Can Med Assoc I , Clin Ultrasound , Oi specialist interest. Since then, this fundamental discovery has been replicated many times. Based on their observations, the authors concluded that autism leads to a specific delay in the development of theory of mind. The idea that autism is associated with social difficulties was not new. When Kanner first identified autism as a developmental disorder in the s, the characteristic symptoms of autism included difficulties in communication and social interaction.
But what was new in the paper was a proposal for the underlying cause of these difficulties. Many possible explanations of reduced social interaction in autism have been offered over the years.
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Do they have atypical emotional reactions to other people? Failure on the false belief task is not indisputable evidence of a specific delay in the theory of mind, however. Children with autism can fail the task for other reasons. For example, passing the task requires sophisticated impulse control; children must inhibit the desire to point to the green box, where the ball really is. When the paper was first published, many scientists suggested that this could be why children with autism fail false belief tasks. In this task, after Sally puts the ball in its original location, the brown basket, she takes a Polaroid photograph.
Then Anne moves the ball from the basket to the second location, the green box. Before the child is allowed to see the picture, he is asked to predict: where will the ball be in the picture? Baron-Cohen and Leslie were quick to use the false photograph task to test their theory of autism. In separate papers 3 , 4 , and with separate groups of children, both reported the same result: children with autism fail the false belief task, but pass the false photograph task.
So their original conclusion was supported. Although children with autism appear to have the logical and cognitive resources necessary to pass the false photograph task, they still fail the false belief task, which hinges specifically on the theory of mind. Of course, there are still many unanswered questions. Not all people with autism fail false belief tasks: with training, or even just with time, many learn to make the correct action predictions. Does this mean that a deficit in the theory of mind is only a temporary feature of autism?
Or does it mean that some people with autism have found ways of compensating for their weaknesses? More generally, if difficulties with social interaction are explained by a deficit in theory of mind, what explains that deficit? Autism is a neurological disorder, with a genetic basis. Finally, there appear to be many different causes of autism, including many different kinds of genetic bases.
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