References for research paper

How to Format an in Text Citation

The CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Huth et al. Kuret, J. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related New York: Pergamon. Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red : "It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior Gumwad ; Bugjuice Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there.

Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers , give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author , cite it as Anon.

Year, e. See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article , do so as follows: Driblick , in Oobleck A string of citations should be separated by semicolons, e.


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Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e. Top of Page Personal Communications: Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr. When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: "It has been found that male mice However, the source is usually thanked in your Acknowledgments for their contribution.

Cite references in the flow of the text as shown above. How the author stated this information, i. Take the information and put it into your own words ; avoid paraphrasing since this can potentially lead to plagiarism. Top of Page Formats for Complete Citations used in the Literature Cited In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper.

Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name s : All citation entries are listed in alphabetical order based the first author's last name ; If the same author s are cited for more than one paper having the same order of authors' names , the papers should be listed in chronological sequence by year of publication. Authors' names MUST be listed in the citation in the same order as in the article.

If the same author s are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them.

For example: Bugjuice, B. Include the last name and first initials of each author, with each individual separated by a comma. The last author should be preceded with an ampersand. If there are more than seven, include the first six and then include an ellipses. Jones, H. Lightlen, P. How to reference an article with more than seven authors. APA Format Today, 17, If an article does not cite any authors, then start by giving the title of the article, followed by the publication date, source, and URL if you accessed the article electronically. Scientists seek source of creativity.

Dayton County News. See an example of different types of references and learn more about APA format. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. More in Student Resources. Basic Structure. Two Authors. Three to Seven Authors.

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More Than Seven Authors:. No Author. View All. Examples Author, I. Referencing articles in APA format. APA Format Weekly, 34, Example James, S. Magazine articles in APA format. Newsweek, 20, Example Tensky, J. Example Mischel, W. The idea is that old! Also, if you want to prove your claim, that some method was used in the 70s, it's useful to cite papers written in the 70s. The rule you quote is total nonsense for the sciences, and I have a hard time taking it seriously for the humanities.

You cite whatever you need to cite, regardless of its age. Typically, if you're referring to something that is decades old, it's now either common knowledge e.

Citing Sources: Sample Reference List Citations

Both of those things are a consequence of age but age per se is a completely spurious reason to not cite something. From a pure data science perspective, they try to understand how the distribution of reference age affects the forward citations of an article. Unfortunately, they do not show an aggregated histogram of age differences between a publication and its references. But in Fig. So the take away might be to cite what you want. However, they echo in their paper the comments and answers that you got here. Impactful and hopefully good research seems to differ from the "cite what you want" approach.

If you want to increase the likelihood of your work having an impact you should base your work on recent advances but also be aware of well-established theories or overlooked ideas from the past. They show this in the paper by finding a hotspot of highly cited papers that have a low mean age distance to their references but a high variance in age distance.

There's no limit on how old they can be. In biology people often cite Darwin and geneticists who work on pedigrees can cite government records from hundreds of years ago. Work involving theology may cite the Bible. Historians cite original documents from thousands of years ago. Sometimes a fun game is to see what the oldest citation you can get away with is. Plato or Aristotle is often a safe bet.

Generally, you are supposed to cite the oldest paper that made a discovery, as the credit belongs to them. When in doubt, you can cite one old and one new paper. However, your work must be in the context of contemporary scientific literature. If you cite a 50 year old paper for a theory, you better make sure the theory has not been disproven in another paper published 30 years after.

If you say the state of the art in a field is a paper published 10 years ago, it would look really bad if somebody brought up a 5 year old paper that advanced it further. This is why citing old material is risky: You can't easily tell that it's still current. If a paper came out last monday, chances are pretty low that somebody refuted it in that time.

Methods of citation

However, what I think is irrelevant; it depends on the person marking your dissertation and how they feel about it. For the most part, it should be fine. Academics who insist on only recent papers are few, in my experience. Thank you for your interest in this question.

citations - How old can references or sources in a thesis be? - Academia Stack Exchange

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Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. How old can references or sources in a thesis be? Ask Question. Asked 6 months ago. Active 2 months ago. Viewed 7k times. I have read that references in scientific papers should be no more than years old, since such fields move fast, and no more than 10 years for arts or related fields: A good rule of thumb is to use sources published in the past 10 years for research in the arts, humanities, literature, history, etc.