Fallacies critical thinking list

Roger claims that Margaret is proposing measures that would eliminate cars.

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Margaret has not said anything equivalent to that. Showing that a strawman version of a position we oppose may win a debate, but it is unlikely to move us toward the truth. If we can show that even the strongest version of a position we oppose is flawed, we may make progress. So good logical and critical thinking leads to the principle of charity: When representing an argument that you do not agree with and are attempting to evaluate, it is important to represent that argument in a way that is reasonably faithful to the argument as it is made by the originators, and as strong as possible.

Critical Thinking & Reasoning: Understanding Fallacies | Public Speaking

We cover the principle of charity in greater details in week 3. Many law-abiding people are cutting their alcohol consumption because they are afraid of being caught by random breath testing. But research shows that the average drink-driver in a fatal accident has an average blood alcohol level of more than twice the legal limit. The current campaign against drinking and driving is failing to achieve what should be our top priority; getting the heavy and hardened drinkers of the road. CEO, Dominion Breweries. He has a vested interest in keeping alcohol sales up, and the anti-drink-driving campaign threatens to reduce alcohol sales.

But if Myer has given arguments in favour of his view, we should evaluate them like any other argument — are they valid? Richard Long, a respected retired New Zealand newsreader featured in advertising campaigns for Hanover Finance.

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Formal and Informal Fallacies

Long had no financial expertise. Newsreaders look well informed, but they are essentially presenters. That would be a fallacious appeal to authority. Appeals to authority also conflict with the basic tenet of good logical and critical thinking which calls upon us to take responsibility for evaluating the grounds for our beliefs. Adopting a belief merely because someone else simply told us it was true is a way of avoiding good logical and critical thinking.

Sometimes, however, good logical and critical thinking will itself lead us to rely on genuine authorities. When I consider whether I should rely on a genuine authority, I should consider the following questions:.

Informal Fallacies

Are they giving advice in the areas within which they are a genuine authority? We should listen to actors about acting; not so much about investing or medicine. Is there a broad consensus among authorities in the area?


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In , they all played for the Auckland Blues. Therefore, the Auckland Blues were a great team. Sadly, for Tim, a long-suffering Blues Fan, the conclusion of this argument was false even though the premises were true. Any law can be repealed by the proper legal authority. The law of gravity is a law. Therefore, the law of gravity can be repealed by the proper legal authority. And, showing that famous philosophers are not immune again, we see John Stuart Mill arguing that happiness is desirable:. The only proof that a sound is audible, is that people hear it… In like manner, I apprehend, the sole evidence it is possible to produce that anything is desirable, is that people do actually desire it… [T]his being a fact, we have not only all the proof which the case admits of, but all which it is possible to require, that happiness is a good.

Reason 8. Leader Acceptance. A majority of the greatest leaders and thinkers in history have affirmed the truth and impact of the Bible. Reason 9. Global Influence. The Bible has had a greater influence on the laws, art, ethics, music and literature of world civilization than any other book in history. Perhaps the Bible is true, but the fact lots of people believe it to be so is irrelevant to whether it is or not. We should investigate and evaluate their reasons for believing it, rather than taking the mere fact that they believe it as a reason to do so.

But … sometimes a consensus among properly informed people may be a fairly good guide to the truth of a claim: see the circumstances in which an appeal to authority might not be fallacious. Note : When we describe someone as ignorant, we often mean it as an insult. Here we use it to describe the situation in which we do not know are ignorant of something.

In this sense, the smartest of us are ignorant of quite a lot. Both claims assume that the lack of evidence for or against a claim is good reason to believe that the claim is false or true. Ignorance — in the sense of a lack of knowledge — features as part of the proof of the conclusion. But in general, the mere fact that a claim has not yet been proven is not enough reason to think that claim is false. Student to Lecturer: I know I missed most of the lectures and all of my tutorials.

But my family will be really upset if I fail this course. That would be an appeal to emotion, in this case love. Note that the persistent child might continue:.

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Daughter: A puppy would grow up and protect us. Father: No. That would be a strawman, not contemplated by the father or entailed by his actual view, and attacking that. Being able to spot the common fallacies can be very useful in the home. Remember, there are three species of fallacies. The Fallacies of Relevance sketched so far attempt to introduce premises that are irrelevant to the conclusion.

Arthur: God exists. Barbara: How do you know? If aliens didn't steal my newspaper, who did? I have a right to free speech so I can say what I want and you shouldn't try to stop me. In Latin America, only two countries offer travel and tourism options: Mexico and Guatemala. Katie is one of 16, students on her college campus. The only boys worth dating are Dave and Steve. How is talking about vaccinations going to help us find a cure for cancer? There are starving children in Africa. Eat your carrots. If we allow our 14 year-old to have her first date tonight, what's next?

A wedding, kids? If we teach Tommy how to drive the car, he'll want to learn how to fly helicopters next! President Trump doesn't have middle class Americans in mind. He's part of the upper echelon of America. Dogs are good pets. Coyotes are dogs. Therefore, coyotes are good pets. Divorce is rampant in America. We only stand a 50 percent chance of survival. Therefore, we can't get married. That face cream can't be good. Kim Kardashian is selling it. Don't listen to Dave's argument on gun control. He's not the brightest bulb in the chandelier.

Everyone on campus is wearing Air Jordans. I need to buy those sneakers. All my friends are doing a low carb diet.

ipdwew0030atl2.public.registeredsite.com/357334-how-to-put.php That must be the only way to lose weight. In this example, the author equates being a "true American," a concept that people want to be associated with, particularly in a time of war, with allowing people to buy any vehicle they want even though there is no inherent connection between the two. Red Herring: This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.

The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families? In this example, the author switches the discussion away from the safety of the food and talks instead about an economic issue, the livelihood of those catching fish. While one issue may effect the other it does not mean we should ignore possible safety issues because of possible economic consequences to a few individuals. Straw Man: This move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument.

In this example, the author attributes the worst possible motive to an opponent's position. In reality, however, the opposition probably has more complex and sympathetic arguments to support their point. By not addressing those arguments, the author is not treating the opposition with respect or refuting their position. Moral Equivalence: This fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major atrocities, suggesting that both are equally immoral. In this example, the author is comparing the relatively harmless actions of a person doing their job with the horrific actions of Hitler.