One approach that teachers use to deal with students with complex needs is intensive interaction. This method creates an enjoyable and non-threatening environment for the autistic student or one who has learning difficulties that are severe. This approach is based on the way parents communicate with infants, such interactions are short, and they involve short noises which involve the autistic child and touch Hornby, , p. From the start, these interactions are brief, but they grow with time.
The child is motivated to participate in the communication actively, and they try to control the communicative situation. This approach enables parents, teachers, and caretakers to connect with an individual and they create an exchange which is enjoyable and reduces challenges and helps to develop communication skills Campbell, , p. However, regardless of the method being used, it is important for time to be spent observing children with complex communication delay.
There have been attempts at communing which are unnoticed. It is important to pick these attempts and to understand their meaning. It is true that these communication attempts are at times unnoticed and this may make the child lose their resolve in learning Campbell, , p. With children who cannot talk, focusing on body movements and making notes of vocalizations is important.
A teacher can video a child and then watch it back, most of the time they will notice something different they had not seen before Ainscow, , p. Looking at what triggers moving and being vocal is very crucial.
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Through keeping running records, teachers can note that there are some things which elicit a special reaction in children. How did the child act when they wanted more?
This can be a special place to start communication. Teaching children with special needs requires a planned strategy and consistent efforts. Good care should be taken to make them feel comfortable during the learning process. Apart from classroom lessons, emphasis should be made on practical lessons. This is because, by practical experience, it is possible for them to understand the concepts well. Practical teaching is an integral part of imparting knowledge to special kids.
Use of virtual learning tools is the first step in making special children understand issues that they might otherwise find hard to comprehend Frederickson, , p. Additionally, integrated learning where Special needs children attend lessons with normal kids is helpful because repeated interaction makes them learn issues that they may not have understood during classroom interaction Ainscow, , p. Interaction through games and other social activities opens up the mind of special needs children and makes them more comfortable around members of the society. It is important to determine what a school has.
A starting point is necessary to move forward. Data collected at this point serves as the baseline for measuring success during the school year. It is important to determine the inclusive practices that are already in use. To achieve this, the following data should be collected. It is important to know the number of students who already have disabilities and those who are currently in the general education classes. Data should also be collected on the number of special education teachers who are co-teaching, if there are any, what are the approaches that they are using?
Campbell, , p. The information from staff inventory identifies the members of staff who need to be developed professionally.
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It also identifies the members of staff who may serve as mentors to other staff members. Additionally, if the co-teaching model has just been introduced in a school, then a staff inventory helps to identify the members of staff who are willing to teach. When a needs assessment and staff inventory are conducted, they highlight what is going on in the school during the present time.
This information helps in directing future actions. The leadership of inclusive practices should address the overall implementation of inclusive practices throughout the school. Individuals who are within the school make up this team, and they function as leaders.
This team does not need to be made up of new people, a leadership team that exists can take on the function of an inclusive practices leadership team.
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It is the responsibility of this team to identify a set of principles which will be used to govern a school-wide focus Campbell, , p. Monthly meetings should be convened by the leadership team to review data implementation and revise data implementation as needed.
This team is mainly tasked with fostering the implementation of inclusive school-wide practices. The leadership team also has the responsibility of establishing policy in regards to inclusive practices and identification, actions that should be taken by the entire staff to ensure that policy implementation is effective Ainscow, , p.
The leadership team creates an action plan which addresses the long-term and short-term goals. It is the work of the leadership team to identify activities which are reasonably initiated within a specified period. An attempt to implement too much in a short time mostly leads to failure. The action plan identifies possible challenges and how they will be tackled.
Every goal of the action plan should be addressed through specific actions.
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A plan which has concrete and specific goals is more easily implemented by the staff Campbell, , p. After the development of the plan it should be presented to the entire staff, the plan should be open for criticism although changes should only be made if the suggestions presented do not jeopardize the effective implementation of the plan Ainscow, , p.
Additionally, the plan should be reviewed continually. Revisions should be made as the activities are conducted and goals achieved.
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The leadership should help in updating the plan regularly. If the plan is reasonable and can be easily implemented, then it is easier for the goals to be achieved. This entails implementation of the action plan. For the plan to be effectively implemented certain decisions have to be made regarding some parameters and logistical areas which are related to inclusive practices.
These include issues such as identification of student support needs, incorporating SWD into general education, lesson and time planning Ainscow, , p. If these are not addressed adequately focusing on procedures for each, then it will be impossible to effectively implement the plan. Just as is common with any educational practice, meaningful professional development is critical because it ensures that all members of staff have the required knowledge and skills for effective implementation Cook, , p. Additionally, it is important to create an environment where all staff members are supported in their efforts in implementing inclusive practices.
It is important that staff members receive professional development on the models of inclusive practices if they are to be implemented effectively. Furthermore, engaging the family ensures that inclusive practices are supported and better promoted. Implementation measures should also be set. Identifying what indicates effective practices provides staff with an explicit excellence model which serves as a monitoring tool to gauge how successful implementation is. Additionally, the process needs to be monitored to ensure that inclusive practices are effectively implemented Ainscow, , p.
An effective plan needs to be revised as needs change. Celebrating success is an essential part of an effective implementation of inclusive practices. Creating learning outcomes gives a tutor a tool to use in tailoring the assessment of the students and also measuring the aptitude against the main purpose of the course. Teaching requires assessment this means an evaluation of student understanding considering the goals of a lesson.
There are several types of assessment which involve student work Ainscow, , p. An assessment can take a few minutes, or at times it can take weeks. An assessment can ask students to demonstrate how they understand issues or how they have acquired skills through writing. Additionally, an assessment may seek the ability of a student to create a product or presentation. An assessment can also ask students to demonstrate how much they understand individually or as a group. A successful student learning outcome expresses how much a student should know and what they should be able to achieve after they complete their course Campbell, , p.
Assessment the student learning outcome may provide information which makes it possible to put the learning of students in front of all academic planning processes. An assessment program should show and be determined by the learning goals which a lesson brings forward. However, linking goals to assessment are at times difficult. If the goals set are for the student to learn a concept, does it mean that they should understand facts or summarize information? A tutor should know if the assessment is related to the goals of the lesson Frederickson, , p. An assessment is a multi-step process where a teacher formulates clear learning goals for all students.
A successful assessment should also articulate the learning goals of the students.