Kahu concludes that student interest in learning is greatly influenced by the design and content of the curriculum. Course design and content were critical influences on interest. On the other hand, compulsory courses and topics that did not interest the students often led to boredom and frustration.
Boredom was consistently linked with lower behavioural and cognitive engagement. Bored students procrastinated more, studied less, and, importantly, found the learning more difficult. Below is an extract from a text which a student intends to use in an assignment, followed by two attempts at paraphrasing it. Read through these, then indicate which you think does a better job of paraphrasing. It is generally agreed that homelessness is increasing in Australia, yet there is no commonly accepted definition.
Because of the complexity of homelessness from a social policy and service delivery perspective, there are a wide range of views on what constitutes homelessness. Definitions of homelessness are culturally and historically contingent. Homelessness is complicated from both policy-making and service delivery points of view. For this reason, there are many different opinions on what homelessness means.
Characterisations of homelessness are linked to culture and history. They encompass both narrow objective views which define being homeless as being roofless, and more personal definitions based on cultural and historical understandings of 'home' ABS, A multi-faceted concept, homelessness can be defined in a variety of ways, most simply as the basic lack of shelter. This complexity impacts the development of effective policy and services to address homelessness ABS, Summarised information must be accompanied by a citation.
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Don't forget to include a proper citation when summarising and be careful not to add new points or change the original meaning. The following paragraph is a summary of the original source below written by a student as part of a report on the dietary habits of Australian adolescents. Compare the student's summary to the original text and answer the question.
While protein intakes were adequate in these subpopulations, the top two sources of iron were from plant-based, iron fortified sources breakfast cereals and breads and bread rolls. With regard to higher iron bioavailability and density, animal-based protein sources may be another strategy to address iron intake, particularly among females, as it has been previously shown to be a less popular food choice among Australian children and adolescents and avoided by young female adults Fayet-Moore et al.
Fayet-Moore et al. They attribute this to a tendency to avoid foods derived from animals. Read this section of an article and choose which option from the answers below best summarises it. Longitudinal studies have also confirmed the role of beliefs in teacher practice. The impact of previously held beliefs was found to be enduring when four school teachers were observed over a two-year period implementing a new and specific method of teaching reading Stephens et al.
Despite the teachers receiving special training, new practice was not comprehensively sustained, with one teacher reverting to practice based on prior-held beliefs at the end of the training period. Similar reliance on earlier beliefs has been observed in studies of preservice teachers. In a two year study on development of professional belief systems about reading instruction the teachers appeared to create fictive images of themselves as teachers consistent with their prior knowledge of teachers and reading, and the experiences they had on teaching practicum Stoube, Remember: Read the text carefully and check anything you do not understand.
Your summary will not be accurate if you have misunderstood the work. In some disciplines, such as literary studies and history, quoting is used frequently to support an argument.
In most others, especially science and technology, it is used sparingly, if at all. Make sure you understand how quoting is used in your discipline. If unsure, ask a lecturer or tutor.
Keep the quote as brief as possible, and integrate it into the development of your argument or discussion. This means commenting on the quote to show how it connects to your point. All quotes require page numbers in the citation. Different citation styles have different definitions of short and long quotes. Check your citation style or ask your tutor or lecturer if you are unsure.
For a short quote up to two or three lines , place the relevant words in quotation marks and incorporate them into your sentence. According to Scholte , p. It is not a failing of the author when one of the characters acts in an unusually audacious way. There are many examples in real life as well as fiction of a normally cautious person finding themselves enjoying an adventure.
You do not need to place technical terms or specialised vocabulary in quotation marks if you use them as a part of a paraphrase or summary in your assignment. Generally, the quote should be preceded by a colon. Check the referencing style guide for your unit. Kotler comments on the tendency of many Americans to assume that everything in the United States is better than elsewhere:. A nation that is great does not need to boast about it! It will be known without promotion. Many Europeans, especially the French, feel their lives are more satisfying Kotler, , p.
A similar attitude prevails in Australia and can be discerned in discussions about immigration. Many commentators take it for granted that everyone would prefer to live here. Never end a paragraph with a block quote.
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You should always explain how the quote fits into your argument. Each of these four attempts at quoting has an error. Drag the error the writer has made on the right hand side and match it to the quote on the left. Look at the following examples of long quotes. Indicate whether the quote has been used appropriately. Hint: This activity requires you to consider more than just the formatting of the quote. Information-prominent citation is used when what i. In this case the citation follows the content. For example:.
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Author-prominent citation is used when the primary importance is given to who i. In this case the author is usually mentioned in the subject of the sentence. Instances when author-prominent citation are useful include:. So far we have discussed three methods of presenting or referring to the work of others in your assignments: paraphrasing, summarising and quoting. In any assignment you will most likely use a mix of these techniques to convey what you have read. However, there are other considerations which will affect the way you present this information:.
Look at the example below. The purpose of the paragraph is to introduce the concept of homelessness and lead into a discussion of policy development and service provision.
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Note how the writer has incorporated materials from several sources. Homelessness can be defined in a number of ways. These extend from the want of shelter ABS, , which may or may not include temporary shelter such as couchsurfing and crisis accommodation Mission Australia, , to a lack of permanency, membership of a family or social unit, or sense of historical belonging OUP, The difficulty of agreeing on a definition is reflected in the complexity involved in developing effective policies and services for those deemed to be homeless ABS, Now read the version below.
A multi-faceted concept, it can be defined in a variety of ways, most simply as merely the want of shelter ABS, , including or not including those who are couch surfing or in crisis accommodation Mission Australia These additional elements reflect the influence of cultural and historical factors on our understanding of what constitutes a home ABS, and, by extension, what is lost when one becomes homeless.
Austen, J. London: Promotional Reprint Company. Australian Bureau of Statistics.
A Statistical Definition of Homelessness No. Chomsky, N. Language and mind.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fayet-Moore, F. Identifying eating occasion based opportunities to improve the overall diets of Australian adolescents, Nutrients, 9 6 , Kahu, E.
Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging. Kotler, P.