Additionally, the APA recommends using the active voice and past tense in the abstract, but the present tense may be used to describe conclusions and implications. Acronyms or abbreviated words should be defined in the abstract. The list of keywords should follow after the abstract paragraph, and the word Keywords should be italicized, indented five spaces from the left margin, and followed by a colon. There is no period at the end of the list of keywords. Welcome to Writing Commons , the open-education home for writers. Writing Commons helps students improve their writing, critical thinking, and information literacy.
Moxley, Writing Commons is a viable alternative to expensive writing textbooks. The two best ways to navigate through Writing Commons are using the top menu navigation, called Chapters, or the left-hand navigation menu system. Rhetoric Rhetorical Appeals Rhetorical Situation. An abstract is like a movie trailer. It offers a preview, highlights key points, and helps the audience decide whether to view the entire work. Abstracts are the pivot of a research paper because many journal editorial boards screen manuscripts only on the basis of the abstract. Moreover, even after your research paper is published, your abstract will be the first, and possibly only, thing readers will access through electronic searches.
They will only consider reading the rest of the manuscript if they find your abstract interesting. For studies in the humanities and social sciences, the abstract is typically descriptive. These abstracts may also be seen in review articles or conference proceedings. In scientific writing, on the other hand, abstracts are usually structured to describe the background, methods, results, and conclusions, with or without subheadings. Now how do you go about fitting the essential points from your entire paper— why the research was conducted, what the aims were, how these were met, and what the main findings were—into a paragraph of just words?
Another thing you can do is go back to some of the most interesting papers you have read during your literature review. For a quick 3-minute summary of this article, check out this video:. For a more detailed tutorial on writing a title and abstract, read the following articles:. Create a free account and access this bonus resource. Get Instant Access. You're looking to give wings to your academic career and publication journey.
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We like that! Why don't we give you complete access! If you have created a new instrument, you should attach it as an Appendix.
If you presented participants with various word lists to remember or stimuli to judge, you should describe those in detail here. Use subheadings to separate different types of stimuli if needed. Include an apparatus section if you used specialized equipment for your study e.
What did participants do, and in what order? When you list a control variable e.
Best Abstract Examples
In other words, what nuisance variable were you controlling for? Your procedure should be as brief and concise as possible. Read through it. Did you repeat yourself anywhere? If so, how can you rearrange things to avoid redundancy? You may either write the instructions to the participants verbatim or paraphrase, whichever you deem more appropriate.
In this section, describe how you analyzed the data and what you found. If your data analyses were complex, feel free to break this section down into labeled subsections, perhaps one section for each hypothesis. Include a section for descriptive statistics List what type of analysis or test you conducted to test each hypothesis. Refer to your Statistics textbook for the proper way to report results in APA style.
Report exact p values to two or three decimal places e. However, for p-values less than. Following the presentation of all the statistics and numbers, be sure to state the nature of your finding s in words and whether or not they support your hypothesis e. This information can typically be presented in a sentence or two following the numbers within the same paragraph.
Also, be sure to include the relevant means and SDs.
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It may be useful to include a table or figure to represent your results visually. Be sure to refer to these in your paper e.
Remember that you may present a set of findings either as a table or as a figure, but not as both. For instance, if you present a table of means and standard deviations, you do not need to also report these in the text. However, if you use a figure to represent your results, you may wish to report means and standard deviations in the text, as these may not always be precisely ascertained by examining the figure.
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Do describe the trends shown in the figure. Do not spend any time interpreting or explaining the results; save that for the Discussion section. The goal of the discussion section is to interpret your findings and place them in the broader context of the literature in the area.
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A discussion section is like the reverse of the introduction, in that you begin with the specifics and work toward the more general funnel out. Some points to consider: Begin with a brief restatement of your main findings using words, not numbers. Did they support the hypothesis or not? If not, why not, do you think? Were there any surprising or interesting findings? How do your findings tie into the existing literature on the topic, or extend previous research?
What do the results say about the broader behavior under investigation? If you have surprising findings, you might discuss other theories that can help to explain the findings. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. What are the limitations of the study? Perhaps these could be incorporated into the future research section, below. What additional questions were generated from this study?
What further research should be conducted on the topic? What gaps are there in the current body of research? Whenever you present an idea for a future research study, be sure to explain why you think that particular study should be conducted. What new knowledge would be gained from it? How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior?
Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author.
Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p.
Is an ABSTRACT page required with APA? - Answers
Digital object identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp. Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized. If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation.